In May 2020, I participated in the Magnet Virtual Summit CTF Competition, which consisted of an iOS Extraction, Android Extraction, Google Takeout, Windows E01 Image, and a RAM Capture. I would consider this my first real attempt at competitively participating in a DFIR Style CTF and I truly enjoyed each and every aspect. Before I get into the solutions I was able to find, let me start off by saying that I enjoy learning new skills, and I am a huge fan of open source tools, and validating paid commercial tools with free tools if possible. With that said some of the tools I used to find solutions were Volatility, Autopsy, ALEAPP, iLEAPP, Notepad++, BulkExtractor, Irfanview, unfurl, GCHQ CyberChef, DB Browser (SQLite), and Cellebrite Physical Analyzer. Also I have to give credit to Tarah Melton (@melton_tarah) for her presentation on Memory Analysis, as I had never worked with a RAM Capture before, yet I was able to solve most of the memory based questions using notes from her session. Also a huge thanks to @evandrix for helping confirm I was on the right path for some questions. A great job by Jessica Hyde (@B1N2H3X) and the whole @MagnetForensics Team. Let’s get started with the Android Section…
- Just another pawn - What is the username for the Zynga Chess app?
chess.master.chester – This was found using ALEAPP under Chrome Login Data
- Obfuscating Like a Pro - Chester decided to use a covert app to communicate with Alan, to try to cover their tracks. What is the package name of the app? flag<com.full.package.name.here> (Do not include flag<>, just write out the package name) Hint: https://youtu.be/wEv0zOeA2FU?t=152
Com.zynga.chess.googleplay – This was found using ALEAPP under the Installed Apps, and could also be found in the Chrome Login Data found above. This was based on the previous question asking for the username for the Zynga Chess App and knowing it had a chat feature.
- The College Lifestyle- Artic Edition - Where did Chester get ramen in Norway? (Restaurant Name)
Koie Ramen – Since this was an Android based question and asking for a specific location, I started in the Google Takeout Files. After finding IMG_20200309_172817.jpg, which was a bowl of Ramen, I opened the file in IrfanView, viewed the Exif data and then viewed the Geo-Coordinates in Google Maps. After a slight zoom you are able to see that the photograph was taken inside of Koie Ramen Restaurant.
- Blocked for security reasons! - What is the name of the file that this user attached/linked and emailed to Warren?
- bOat-SINT - While on spring break, Chester took a photo of a famous boat. What is the boat's name (2 words, ______ ship)?
Oseberg Ship – Was found based on the OSINT hidden in the question. After finding the photograph of the boat (IMG_20200308_144240.jpg) in the Google Takeout, I used Google Image Search to locate the name of the ship from the Museum website, which contained a similar image.
- Fastest Thumbs in the West - How many tweets did Chester tweet?
5 – Was found by manually digging through the Android Extraction in Windows Explorer and then viewing the database in DB Browser. The file is located at \data\data\com.twitter.android\databases, where I looked for the largest database file which was 1230174369462267904-60.db. I then viewed the Users Table to find Chester’s ID. Once I had the ID I viewed the Statuses Table and filtered by Auther.id
- New IP Who Dis? - What local port was Warren's computer listening on while connected to the IP 22.214.171.124 during the memory dump?
54281 – This was found
by reviewing the output of the “netscan” command on the RAM Capture in
Volatility, which revealed the port number.
- The Polar Express - What train station did Chester get directions to?
Bergen – Was found by looking in the Google Takeout under My Activity\Maps\MyActivity.html. Once the file was opened in Firefox, ctrl F for “station” and it was listed under a Maps search for Directions To Bergen Station, Bergen, Norway on Mar 10, 2020.
- You Get a Database! And You Get a Database! - Unbeknownst to Chester and Alan, the app found in the question "Obfuscating Like a Pro" didn't store their chat logs securely. What is the chat message ID for where the target of the hack is declared?
18741612351 – Based on the information identifying the Chess app, I manually searched through the Android extraction with Windows Explorer to look at the databases. The file was found at data\data\com.zynga.chess.googleplay\databases\wf_database.sqlite. Reviewing the database you find the message ID where the target is Mallie Sae.
- Chess Master Chester - What was the first move made by Chester in Chester's Chess game? (Flag is in chess notation (Ex. A1-B2))
*Chess board for refrence, assume white starts on rows 7 and 8: https://www.dummies.com/wp-content/uploads/201843.image0.jpg
e2-e4 – This one gave me some trouble at first since I didn’t take the time to identify Chester’s user ID, so after several wrong guesses, I realized that Chester may not have gone first. This was confirmed by finding that Chester is user ID 237046613 in the Users Table. So then using the data in the moves table x1=4 y1=1, which identifies the pawn on e-2. (Looking Lower left of the chess board image 1 = 0 and a = 0 for counting purposes) then x2=4 y2=3, meaning the pawn moved forward two spaces to e-4. This is also validated, by looking at line 3 of the moves table, and examining the data column, which displays the prev_board (naming the pieces by their first initial, and Empty spaces are identified with “e”)
- Take the Red Pill, Chester - Chester configured a moving matrix background on his phone. What did Chester set the falling speed of the characters to?
*Demonstration video located at data/media/0/AzRecorderFree
50 – Found while reviewing the installed apps in the ALEAPP report (com.gulshansingh.hackerlivewallpaper). I then manually found in Windows Explorer the preferences stored in an .xml file located at data\data\com.gulshansingh.hackerlivewallpaper\shared_prefs. Viewing the .xml in Notepad++ you can see the “fallin speed” value is 50.
- Best Foot Forward - What was the percentage likelihood that the Android user was walking on Fri Mar 6 2020 at 20:50:27 UTC
95 – This was found
based on my prior knowledge of data stored by Google in the Takeout related to
Location History. I searched in the
Takeout\Location History directory and then opened the “Location History.json”
in Notepad++ with the JSON Viewer Plugin. Then I used an online time converter to convert the Time/Date Stamp from
the question into EPOCH and searched for the EPOCH value in Notepad++,
which showed a confidence of 95 for Walking.